Station Number 68132
Prefecture Shimane [ Local Portal ]
Location 島根県松江市西津田 松江地方気象台 (MATSUE SHI, SHIMANE KEN)
Months of Observations 430
Number of Observations 314,099
Period of Observations
Period Name Lat. Long. Height Anemometer
1979/11/01 -- 1986/12/31 MATSUE 35.457N 133.065E 17m 26.7m
1987/01/01 -- 2001/02/27 MATSUE 35.457N 133.065E 17m 26.7m
2001/02/28 -- 2012/11/14 MATSUE 35.457N 133.065E 17m 26.7m
2012/11/15 -- 2015/08/99 MATSUE 35.457N 133.065E 17m 26.8m
Real-time Data AMeRAS (AMeDAS Ranking Service)
Past Heavy Rain Data AMeDAS heavy rain
Weather Disaster Reports
Typhoon History
Neighbor Stations
Number Name Distance Azimuth
68131 MATSUE (Shimane) 0.00km 0deg.
68960 MATSUE (Shimane) 0.00km 0deg.
68091 KASHIMA (Shimane) 8.01km 330deg.
68121 HIKAWA (Shimane) 16.62km 252deg.
68166 DAITO (Shimane) 17.90km 210deg.
69006 SAKAI (Tottori) 18.14km 58deg.
69910 SAKAI (Tottori) 18.14km 58deg.
68181 HAKUTA (Shimane) 22.31km 122deg.
69930 YONAGO (Tottori) 24.91km 95deg.
69076 YONAGO (Tottori) 24.93km 96deg.

Statistics for the Whole Period

Precipitation

0.0mm - 0.4mm 0.0mm - 0.4mm = 284,146
[284,146 (90.46% / 90.49%)] [284,146 / 314,005 (90.49%)]
0.5mm - 1.4mm 0.5mm - 1.4mm = 16,974
[16,974 (5.40% / 5.41%)] [301,120 / 29,859 (95.90%)]
1.5mm - 2.4mm 1.5mm - 2.4mm = 5,770
[5,770 (1.84% / 1.84%)] [306,890 / 12,885 (97.73%)]
2.5mm - 3.4mm 2.5mm - 3.4mm = 2,758
[2,758 (0.88% / 0.88%)] [309,648 / 7,115 (98.61%)]
3.5mm - 4.4mm 3.5mm - 4.4mm = 1,480
[1,480 (0.47% / 0.47%)] [311,128 / 4,357 (99.08%)]
4.5mm - 5.4mm 4.5mm - 5.4mm = 864
[864 (0.28% / 0.28%)] [311,992 / 2,877 (99.36%)]
5.5mm - 6.4mm 5.5mm - 6.4mm = 523
[523 (0.17% / 0.17%)] [312,515 / 2,013 (99.53%)]
6.5mm - 7.4mm 6.5mm - 7.4mm = 363
[363 (0.12% / 0.12%)] [312,878 / 1,490 (99.64%)]
7.5mm - 8.4mm 7.5mm - 8.4mm = 268
[268 (0.09% / 0.09%)] [313,146 / 1,127 (99.73%)]
8.5mm - 9.4mm 8.5mm - 9.4mm = 174
[174 (0.06% / 0.06%)] [313,320 / 859 (99.78%)]
9.5mm - 10.4mm 9.5mm - 10.4mm = 129
[129 (0.04% / 0.04%)] [313,449 / 685 (99.82%)]
10.5mm - 11.4mm 10.5mm - 11.4mm = 99
[99 (0.03% / 0.03%)] [313,548 / 556 (99.85%)]
11.5mm - 12.4mm 11.5mm - 12.4mm = 92
[92 (0.03% / 0.03%)] [313,640 / 457 (99.88%)]
12.5mm - 13.4mm 12.5mm - 13.4mm = 70
[70 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [313,710 / 365 (99.91%)]
13.5mm - 14.4mm 13.5mm - 14.4mm = 56
[56 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [313,766 / 295 (99.92%)]
14.5mm - 15.4mm 14.5mm - 15.4mm = 25
[25 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [313,791 / 239 (99.93%)]
15.5mm - 16.4mm 15.5mm - 16.4mm = 28
[28 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [313,819 / 214 (99.94%)]
16.5mm - 17.4mm 16.5mm - 17.4mm = 30
[30 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [313,849 / 186 (99.95%)]
17.5mm - 18.4mm 17.5mm - 18.4mm = 29
[29 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [313,878 / 156 (99.96%)]
18.5mm - 19.4mm 18.5mm - 19.4mm = 18
[18 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [313,896 / 127 (99.97%)]
19.5mm - 20.4mm 19.5mm - 20.4mm = 18
[18 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [313,914 / 109 (99.97%)]
20.5mm - 21.4mm 20.5mm - 21.4mm = 13
[13 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,927 / 91 (99.98%)]
21.5mm - 22.4mm 21.5mm - 22.4mm = 4
[4 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,931 / 78 (99.98%)]
22.5mm - 23.4mm 22.5mm - 23.4mm = 8
[8 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,939 / 74 (99.98%)]
23.5mm - 24.4mm 23.5mm - 24.4mm = 12
[12 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,951 / 66 (99.98%)]
24.5mm - 25.4mm 24.5mm - 25.4mm = 4
[4 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,955 / 54 (99.98%)]
25.5mm - 26.4mm 25.5mm - 26.4mm = 5
[5 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,960 / 50 (99.99%)]
26.5mm - 27.4mm 26.5mm - 27.4mm = 8
[8 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,968 / 45 (99.99%)]
27.5mm - 28.4mm 27.5mm - 28.4mm = 5
[5 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,973 / 37 (99.99%)]
28.5mm - 29.4mm 28.5mm - 29.4mm = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,975 / 32 (99.99%)]
29.5mm - 30.4mm 29.5mm - 30.4mm = 3
[3 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,978 / 30 (99.99%)]
30.5mm - 31.4mm 30.5mm - 31.4mm = 3
[3 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,981 / 27 (99.99%)]
31.5mm - 32.4mm 31.5mm - 32.4mm = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,983 / 24 (99.99%)]
32.5mm - 33.4mm 32.5mm - 33.4mm = 3
[3 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,986 / 22 (99.99%)]
33.5mm - 34.4mm 33.5mm - 34.4mm = 3
[3 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,989 / 19 (99.99%)]
34.5mm - 35.4mm 34.5mm - 35.4mm = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,991 / 16 (100.00%)]
36.5mm - 37.4mm 36.5mm - 37.4mm = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,993 / 14 (100.00%)]
39.5mm - 40.4mm 39.5mm - 40.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,994 / 12 (100.00%)]
40.5mm - 41.4mm 40.5mm - 41.4mm = 3
[3 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,997 / 11 (100.00%)]
41.5mm - 42.4mm 41.5mm - 42.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,998 / 8 (100.00%)]
44.5mm - 45.4mm 44.5mm - 45.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [313,999 / 7 (100.00%)]
46.5mm - 47.4mm 46.5mm - 47.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,000 / 6 (100.00%)]
47.5mm - 48.4mm 47.5mm - 48.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,001 / 5 (100.00%)]
53.5mm - 54.4mm 53.5mm - 54.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,002 / 4 (100.00%)]
54.5mm - 55.4mm 54.5mm - 55.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,003 / 3 (100.00%)]
56.5mm - 57.4mm 56.5mm - 57.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,004 / 2 (100.00%)]
67.5mm - 68.4mm 67.5mm - 68.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,005 / 1 (100.00%)]

Missing observations (94 / 0.03%)

Wind Direction

Calm Calm = 27,421
[27,421 (8.73% / 8.73%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
NNE NNE = 7,455
[7,455 (2.37% / 2.37%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
NE NE = 17,520
[17,520 (5.58% / 5.58%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
ENE ENE = 27,560
[27,560 (8.77% / 8.78%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
E E = 41,396
[41,396 (13.18% / 13.18%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
ESE ESE = 26,227
[26,227 (8.35% / 8.35%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
SE SE = 9,919
[9,919 (3.16% / 3.16%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
SSE SSE = 4,434
[4,434 (1.41% / 1.41%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
S S = 5,001
[5,001 (1.59% / 1.59%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
SSW SSW = 7,901
[7,901 (2.52% / 2.52%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
SW SW = 11,425
[11,425 (3.64% / 3.64%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
WSW WSW = 30,963
[30,963 (9.86% / 9.86%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
W W = 49,616
[49,616 (15.80% / 15.80%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
WNW WNW = 20,574
[20,574 (6.55% / 6.55%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
NW NW = 13,995
[13,995 (4.46% / 4.46%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
NNW NNW = 7,411
[7,411 (2.36% / 2.36%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]
N N = 5,238
[5,238 (1.67% / 1.67%)] [0 / 0 (NA)]

Missing observations (43 / 0.01%)

Wind Speed

0.0m/s - 0.4m/s 0.0m/s - 0.4m/s = 28,901
[28,901 (9.20% / 9.20%)] [28,901 / 314,058 (9.20%)]
0.5m/s - 1.4m/s 0.5m/s - 1.4m/s = 62,362
[62,362 (19.85% / 19.86%)] [91,263 / 285,157 (29.06%)]
1.5m/s - 2.4m/s 1.5m/s - 2.4m/s = 51,674
[51,674 (16.45% / 16.45%)] [142,937 / 222,795 (45.51%)]
2.5m/s - 3.4m/s 2.5m/s - 3.4m/s = 46,728
[46,728 (14.88% / 14.88%)] [189,665 / 171,121 (60.39%)]
3.5m/s - 4.4m/s 3.5m/s - 4.4m/s = 38,964
[38,964 (12.41% / 12.41%)] [228,629 / 124,393 (72.80%)]
4.5m/s - 5.4m/s 4.5m/s - 5.4m/s = 28,256
[28,256 (9.00% / 9.00%)] [256,885 / 85,429 (81.80%)]
5.5m/s - 6.4m/s 5.5m/s - 6.4m/s = 19,095
[19,095 (6.08% / 6.08%)] [275,980 / 57,173 (87.88%)]
6.5m/s - 7.4m/s 6.5m/s - 7.4m/s = 13,146
[13,146 (4.19% / 4.19%)] [289,126 / 38,078 (92.06%)]
7.5m/s - 8.4m/s 7.5m/s - 8.4m/s = 9,195
[9,195 (2.93% / 2.93%)] [298,321 / 24,932 (94.99%)]
8.5m/s - 9.4m/s 8.5m/s - 9.4m/s = 6,165
[6,165 (1.96% / 1.96%)] [304,486 / 15,737 (96.95%)]
9.5m/s - 10.4m/s 9.5m/s - 10.4m/s = 4,016
[4,016 (1.28% / 1.28%)] [308,502 / 9,572 (98.23%)]
10.5m/s - 11.4m/s 10.5m/s - 11.4m/s = 2,590
[2,590 (0.82% / 0.82%)] [311,092 / 5,556 (99.06%)]
11.5m/s - 12.4m/s 11.5m/s - 12.4m/s = 1,469
[1,469 (0.47% / 0.47%)] [312,561 / 2,966 (99.52%)]
12.5m/s - 13.4m/s 12.5m/s - 13.4m/s = 756
[756 (0.24% / 0.24%)] [313,317 / 1,497 (99.76%)]
13.5m/s - 14.4m/s 13.5m/s - 14.4m/s = 403
[403 (0.13% / 0.13%)] [313,720 / 741 (99.89%)]
14.5m/s - 15.4m/s 14.5m/s - 15.4m/s = 186
[186 (0.06% / 0.06%)] [313,906 / 338 (99.95%)]
15.5m/s - 16.4m/s 15.5m/s - 16.4m/s = 76
[76 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [313,982 / 152 (99.98%)]
16.5m/s - 17.4m/s 16.5m/s - 17.4m/s = 49
[49 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [314,031 / 76 (99.99%)]
17.5m/s - 18.4m/s 17.5m/s - 18.4m/s = 14
[14 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,045 / 27 (100.00%)]
18.5m/s - 19.4m/s 18.5m/s - 19.4m/s = 7
[7 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,052 / 13 (100.00%)]
19.5m/s - 20.4m/s 19.5m/s - 20.4m/s = 3
[3 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,055 / 6 (100.00%)]
21.5m/s - 22.4m/s 21.5m/s - 22.4m/s = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,056 / 3 (100.00%)]
22.5m/s - 23.4m/s 22.5m/s - 23.4m/s = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,057 / 2 (100.00%)]
28.5m/s - 29.4m/s 28.5m/s - 29.4m/s = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,058 / 1 (100.00%)]

Missing observations (41 / 0.01%)

Temperature

-7.5C - -6.6C -7.5C - -6.6C = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [1 / 314,080 (0.00%)]
-6.5C - -5.6C -6.5C - -5.6C = 3
[3 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [4 / 314,079 (0.00%)]
-5.5C - -4.6C -5.5C - -4.6C = 12
[12 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [16 / 314,076 (0.01%)]
-4.5C - -3.6C -4.5C - -3.6C = 30
[30 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [46 / 314,064 (0.01%)]
-3.5C - -2.6C -3.5C - -2.6C = 85
[85 (0.03% / 0.03%)] [131 / 314,034 (0.04%)]
-2.5C - -1.6C -2.5C - -1.6C = 264
[264 (0.08% / 0.08%)] [395 / 313,949 (0.13%)]
-1.5C - -0.6C -1.5C - -0.6C = 769
[769 (0.24% / 0.24%)] [1,164 / 313,685 (0.37%)]
-0.5C - 0.4C -0.5C - 0.4C = 6,515
[6,515 (2.07% / 2.07%)] [7,679 / 312,916 (2.44%)]
0.5C - 1.4C 0.5C - 1.4C = 7,194
[7,194 (2.29% / 2.29%)] [14,873 / 306,401 (4.74%)]
1.5C - 2.4C 1.5C - 2.4C = 8,134
[8,134 (2.59% / 2.59%)] [23,007 / 299,207 (7.33%)]
2.5C - 3.4C 2.5C - 3.4C = 9,288
[9,288 (2.96% / 2.96%)] [32,295 / 291,073 (10.28%)]
3.5C - 4.4C 3.5C - 4.4C = 10,691
[10,691 (3.40% / 3.40%)] [42,986 / 281,785 (13.69%)]
4.5C - 5.4C 4.5C - 5.4C = 11,523
[11,523 (3.67% / 3.67%)] [54,509 / 271,094 (17.36%)]
5.5C - 6.4C 5.5C - 6.4C = 12,116
[12,116 (3.86% / 3.86%)] [66,625 / 259,571 (21.21%)]
6.5C - 7.4C 6.5C - 7.4C = 12,197
[12,197 (3.88% / 3.88%)] [78,822 / 247,455 (25.10%)]
7.5C - 8.4C 7.5C - 8.4C = 11,644
[11,644 (3.71% / 3.71%)] [90,466 / 235,258 (28.80%)]
8.5C - 9.4C 8.5C - 9.4C = 11,136
[11,136 (3.55% / 3.55%)] [101,602 / 223,614 (32.35%)]
9.5C - 10.4C 9.5C - 10.4C = 10,388
[10,388 (3.31% / 3.31%)] [111,990 / 212,478 (35.66%)]
10.5C - 11.4C 10.5C - 11.4C = 10,251
[10,251 (3.26% / 3.26%)] [122,241 / 202,090 (38.92%)]
11.5C - 12.4C 11.5C - 12.4C = 9,998
[9,998 (3.18% / 3.18%)] [132,239 / 191,839 (42.10%)]
12.5C - 13.4C 12.5C - 13.4C = 9,885
[9,885 (3.15% / 3.15%)] [142,124 / 181,841 (45.25%)]
13.5C - 14.4C 13.5C - 14.4C = 9,720
[9,720 (3.09% / 3.09%)] [151,844 / 171,956 (48.35%)]
14.5C - 15.4C 14.5C - 15.4C = 9,791
[9,791 (3.12% / 3.12%)] [161,635 / 162,236 (51.46%)]
15.5C - 16.4C 15.5C - 16.4C = 10,089
[10,089 (3.21% / 3.21%)] [171,724 / 152,445 (54.68%)]
16.5C - 17.4C 16.5C - 17.4C = 10,295
[10,295 (3.28% / 3.28%)] [182,019 / 142,356 (57.95%)]
17.5C - 18.4C 17.5C - 18.4C = 10,410
[10,410 (3.31% / 3.31%)] [192,429 / 132,061 (61.27%)]
18.5C - 19.4C 18.5C - 19.4C = 11,499
[11,499 (3.66% / 3.66%)] [203,928 / 121,651 (64.93%)]
19.5C - 20.4C 19.5C - 20.4C = 11,361
[11,361 (3.62% / 3.62%)] [215,289 / 110,152 (68.55%)]
20.5C - 21.4C 20.5C - 21.4C = 12,044
[12,044 (3.83% / 3.83%)] [227,333 / 98,791 (72.38%)]
21.5C - 22.4C 21.5C - 22.4C = 12,351
[12,351 (3.93% / 3.93%)] [239,684 / 86,747 (76.31%)]
22.5C - 23.4C 22.5C - 23.4C = 12,491
[12,491 (3.98% / 3.98%)] [252,175 / 74,396 (80.29%)]
23.5C - 24.4C 23.5C - 24.4C = 12,174
[12,174 (3.88% / 3.88%)] [264,349 / 61,905 (84.17%)]
24.5C - 25.4C 24.5C - 25.4C = 11,150
[11,150 (3.55% / 3.55%)] [275,499 / 49,731 (87.72%)]
25.5C - 26.4C 25.5C - 26.4C = 9,747
[9,747 (3.10% / 3.10%)] [285,246 / 38,581 (90.82%)]
26.5C - 27.4C 26.5C - 27.4C = 7,829
[7,829 (2.49% / 2.49%)] [293,075 / 28,834 (93.31%)]
27.5C - 28.4C 27.5C - 28.4C = 5,945
[5,945 (1.89% / 1.89%)] [299,020 / 21,005 (95.21%)]
28.5C - 29.4C 28.5C - 29.4C = 4,573
[4,573 (1.46% / 1.46%)] [303,593 / 15,060 (96.66%)]
29.5C - 30.4C 29.5C - 30.4C = 3,546
[3,546 (1.13% / 1.13%)] [307,139 / 10,487 (97.79%)]
30.5C - 31.4C 30.5C - 31.4C = 2,862
[2,862 (0.91% / 0.91%)] [310,001 / 6,941 (98.70%)]
31.5C - 32.4C 31.5C - 32.4C = 1,990
[1,990 (0.63% / 0.63%)] [311,991 / 4,079 (99.33%)]
32.5C - 33.4C 32.5C - 33.4C = 1,235
[1,235 (0.39% / 0.39%)] [313,226 / 2,089 (99.73%)]
33.5C - 34.4C 33.5C - 34.4C = 579
[579 (0.18% / 0.18%)] [313,805 / 854 (99.91%)]
34.5C - 35.4C 34.5C - 35.4C = 219
[219 (0.07% / 0.07%)] [314,024 / 275 (99.98%)]
35.5C - 36.4C 35.5C - 36.4C = 43
[43 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [314,067 / 56 (100.00%)]
36.5C - 37.4C 36.5C - 37.4C = 11
[11 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,078 / 13 (100.00%)]
37.5C - 38.4C 37.5C - 38.4C = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [314,080 / 2 (100.00%)]

Missing observations (19 / 0.01%)

Sunshine Duration

0.0h 0.0h = 221,519
[221,519 (70.53% / 70.61%)] [221,519 / 313,714 (70.61%)]
0.1h 0.1h = 9,439
[9,439 (3.01% / 3.01%)] [230,958 / 92,195 (73.62%)]
0.2h 0.2h = 7,138
[7,138 (2.27% / 2.28%)] [238,096 / 82,756 (75.90%)]
0.3h 0.3h = 6,062
[6,062 (1.93% / 1.93%)] [244,158 / 75,618 (77.83%)]
0.4h 0.4h = 5,649
[5,649 (1.80% / 1.80%)] [249,807 / 69,556 (79.63%)]
0.5h 0.5h = 5,282
[5,282 (1.68% / 1.68%)] [255,089 / 63,907 (81.31%)]
0.6h 0.6h = 5,009
[5,009 (1.59% / 1.60%)] [260,098 / 58,625 (82.91%)]
0.7h 0.7h = 5,118
[5,118 (1.63% / 1.63%)] [265,216 / 53,616 (84.54%)]
0.8h 0.8h = 5,357
[5,357 (1.71% / 1.71%)] [270,573 / 48,498 (86.25%)]
0.9h 0.9h = 6,521
[6,521 (2.08% / 2.08%)] [277,094 / 43,141 (88.33%)]
1.0h 1.0h = 36,620
[36,620 (11.66% / 11.67%)] [313,714 / 36,620 (100.00%)]

Missing observations (385 / 0.12%)

Snow Depth

0cm 0cm = 27,244
[27,244 (8.67% / 90.39%)] [27,244 / 30,140 (90.39%)]
1cm - 5cm 1cm - 5cm = 1,273
[1,273 (0.41% / 4.22%)] [28,517 / 2,896 (94.62%)]
6cm - 10cm 6cm - 10cm = 544
[544 (0.17% / 1.80%)] [29,061 / 1,623 (96.42%)]
11cm - 15cm 11cm - 15cm = 602
[602 (0.19% / 2.00%)] [29,663 / 1,079 (98.42%)]
16cm - 20cm 16cm - 20cm = 363
[363 (0.12% / 1.20%)] [30,026 / 477 (99.62%)]
21cm - 25cm 21cm - 25cm = 59
[59 (0.02% / 0.20%)] [30,085 / 114 (99.82%)]
26cm - 30cm 26cm - 30cm = 20
[20 (0.01% / 0.07%)] [30,105 / 55 (99.88%)]
31cm - 35cm 31cm - 35cm = 10
[10 (0.00% / 0.03%)] [30,115 / 35 (99.92%)]
36cm - 40cm 36cm - 40cm = 3
[3 (0.00% / 0.01%)] [30,118 / 25 (99.93%)]
41cm - 45cm 41cm - 45cm = 4
[4 (0.00% / 0.01%)] [30,122 / 22 (99.94%)]
46cm - 50cm 46cm - 50cm = 7
[7 (0.00% / 0.02%)] [30,129 / 18 (99.96%)]
51cm - 55cm 51cm - 55cm = 10
[10 (0.00% / 0.03%)] [30,139 / 11 (100.00%)]
56cm - 60cm 56cm - 60cm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [30,140 / 1 (100.00%)]

Missing observations (283,959 / 90.40%)