Map

Track Data

SID SEASON NUMBER BASIN SUBBASIN NAME ISO_TIME NATURE LAT LON WMO_WIND WMO_PRES WMO_AGENCY TRACK_TYPE DIST2LAND LANDFALL IFLAG USA_AGENCY USA_ATCF_ID USA_LAT USA_LON USA_RECORD USA_STATUS USA_WIND USA_PRES USA_SSHS USA_R34_NE USA_R34_SE USA_R34_SW USA_R34_NW USA_R50_NE USA_R50_SE USA_R50_SW USA_R50_NW USA_R64_NE USA_R64_SE USA_R64_SW USA_R64_NW USA_POCI USA_ROCI USA_RMW USA_EYE TOKYO_LAT TOKYO_LON TOKYO_GRADE TOKYO_WIND TOKYO_PRES TOKYO_R50_DIR TOKYO_R50_LONG TOKYO_R50_SHORT TOKYO_R30_DIR TOKYO_R30_LONG TOKYO_R30_SHORT TOKYO_LAND CMA_LAT CMA_LON CMA_CAT CMA_WIND CMA_PRES HKO_LAT HKO_LON HKO_CAT HKO_WIND HKO_PRES NEWDELHI_LAT NEWDELHI_LON NEWDELHI_GRADE NEWDELHI_WIND NEWDELHI_PRES NEWDELHI_CI NEWDELHI_DP NEWDELHI_POCI REUNION_LAT REUNION_LON REUNION_TYPE REUNION_WIND REUNION_PRES REUNION_TNUM REUNION_CI REUNION_RMW REUNION_R34_NE REUNION_R34_SE REUNION_R34_SW REUNION_R34_NW REUNION_R50_NE REUNION_R50_SE REUNION_R50_SW REUNION_R50_NW REUNION_R64_NE REUNION_R64_SE REUNION_R64_SW REUNION_R64_NW BOM_LAT BOM_LON BOM_TYPE BOM_WIND BOM_PRES BOM_TNUM BOM_CI BOM_RMW BOM_R34_NE BOM_R34_SE BOM_R34_SW BOM_R34_NW BOM_R50_NE BOM_R50_SE BOM_R50_SW BOM_R50_NW BOM_R64_NE BOM_R64_SE BOM_R64_SW BOM_R64_NW BOM_ROCI BOM_POCI BOM_EYE BOM_POS_METHOD BOM_PRES_METHOD NADI_LAT NADI_LON NADI_CAT NADI_WIND NADI_PRES WELLINGTON_LAT WELLINGTON_LON WELLINGTON_WIND WELLINGTON_PRES DS824_LAT DS824_LON DS824_STAGE DS824_WIND DS824_PRES TD9636_LAT TD9636_LON TD9636_STAGE TD9636_WIND TD9636_PRES TD9635_LAT TD9635_LON TD9635_WIND TD9635_PRES TD9635_ROCI NEUMANN_LAT NEUMANN_LON NEUMANN_CLASS NEUMANN_WIND NEUMANN_PRES MLC_LAT MLC_LON MLC_CLASS MLC_WIND MLC_PRES USA_GUST BOM_GUST BOM_GUST_PER REUNION_GUST REUNION_GUST_PER USA_SEAHGT USA_SEARAD_NE USA_SEARAD_SE USA_SEARAD_SW USA_SEARAD_NW STORM_SPEED STORM_DIR
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-14 06:00:00 TS 17.0000 142.000 main 1854 1854 __O___________ -1 17.0000 142.000 0 19 1004 11 22
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-14 09:00:00 TS 17.5001 142.212 main 1887 1845 __P___________ -1 17.5001 142.212 0 19 1004 11 25
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-14 12:00:00 TS 18.0000 142.500 main 1845 1807 __O___________ -1 18.0000 142.500 0 19 1004 12 34
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-14 15:00:00 TS 18.4998 142.925 main 1807 1780 __P___________ -1 18.4998 142.925 0 21 1003 14 43
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-14 18:00:00 TS 19.0000 143.500 main 1780 1751 __O___________ -1 19.0000 143.500 1 23 1002 16 49
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-14 21:00:00 TS 19.5751 144.212 main 1751 1734 __P___________ -1 19.5751 144.212 1 23 1001 17 55
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-15 00:00:00 TS 20.0000 145.000 main 1737 1735 __O___________ -1 20.0000 145.000 1 23 1000 15 72
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-15 03:00:00 TS 20.0366 145.714 main 1758 1758 __P___________ -1 20.0366 145.714 1 26 999 14 90
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-15 06:00:00 TS 20.0000 146.500 main 1785 1785 __O___________ -1 20.0000 146.500 1 29 998 16 84
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-15 09:00:00 TS 20.2039 147.403 main 1798 1796 __P___________ -1 20.2039 147.403 1 29 998 19 75
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-15 12:00:00 TS 20.5000 148.500 main 1814 1813 __O___________ -1 20.5000 148.500 1 29 998 24 76
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-15 15:00:00 TS 20.7715 149.900 main 1852 1852 __P___________ -1 20.7715 149.900 1 29 996 18 84
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-15 18:00:00 TS 20.6800 150.440 main 1888 1888 __OO__________ -1 21.1000 151.300 1 29 995 19.0000 147.000 TD 25 998 12 80
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-15 21:00:00 TS 20.9786 151.123 main 1897 1878 __PP__________ -1 21.4811 152.384 1 29 995 19.9736 148.603 TD 27 997 20 55
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-16 00:00:00 TS 21.8125 152.150 998 tokyo main 1884 1866 _OOO__________ -1 23.8000 153.700 2 998 0 0 0 22.0000 153.300 1 29 995 20.9000 150.100 TD 30 996 24 49
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-16 03:00:00 TS 22.5666 153.059 main 1867 1860 _PPP__________ -1 23.8223 154.038 2 997 0 0 22.7424 154.224 1 29 994 21.7631 151.405 TD 30 995 24 49
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-16 06:00:00 TS 23.3846 154.085 996 tokyo main 1865 1857 OOOO______O___ jtwc_wp WP161981 23.8000 154.600 25 -1 24.0000 154.500 2 996 0 0 0 23.5000 155.000 1 29 993 22.6000 152.600 TD 30 994 23.8000 154.600 1 25 23 48
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-16 09:00:00 TS 24.0977 154.888 main 1864 1850 PPPP______P___ WP161981 24.5000 154.955 27 -1 24.4328 155.162 2 996 0 0 23.9995 155.591 1 29 993 23.4497 153.846 TD 32 994 24.5175 154.953 1 27 20 43
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-16 12:00:00 TS 24.8000 155.556 996 tokyo main 1858 1841 OOOO______O___ jtwc_wp WP161981 25.2000 155.400 30 -1 25.0000 155.900 2 996 0 0 0 24.5000 156.000 1 29 993 24.3000 155.000 TS 35 994 25.2000 155.400 1 30 19 39
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-16 15:00:00 TS 25.5358 156.178 main 1848 1841 PPPP______P___ WP161981 25.8874 155.997 35 -1 25.5423 156.573 2 995 0 0 25.2497 156.288 1 33 991 25.1792 156.026 TS 35 994 25.8204 156.006 1 35 18 39
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-16 18:00:00 TS 26.1968 156.805 994 tokyo main 1843 1843 OOOO______P___ jtwc_wp WP161981 26.5000 156.700 40 0 26.1000 157.200 2 994 0 0 0 26.0000 156.500 2 38 990 26.0000 156.900 TS 35 994 26.3841 156.724 1 40 16 42
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-16 21:00:00 TS 26.7351 157.399 main 1856 1850 PPPP______P___ WP161981 26.9803 157.473 45 -1 26.6346 157.766 2 992 0 0 26.4834 156.619 2 38 987 26.6717 157.654 TS 37 993 26.9053 157.481 1 45 15 45
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-17 00:00:00 TS 27.2600 158.000 990 tokyo main 1866 1866 OOOO______O___ jtwc_wp WP161981 27.4000 158.200 XX 50 -5 27.2000 158.300 2 990 0 0 0 27.0000 157.000 2 38 985 27.3000 158.300 TS 40 992 27.4000 158.200 2 50 16 45
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-17 03:00:00 TS 27.8948 158.684 main 1887 1887 PPPP______P___ WP161981 27.8418 158.731 XX 52 -5 27.8497 158.843 2 987 0 0 27.8537 158.122 2 43 984 28.0298 158.937 TS 40 988 27.8991 158.786 2 50 17 43
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-17 06:00:00 TS 28.5156 159.344 40 985 tokyo main 1903 1903 OOOO______P___ jtwc_wp WP161981 28.3000 159.200 XX 55 -5 28.5000 159.400 3 40 985 0 9 100 100 0 28.7000 159.300 3 48 983 28.7000 159.500 TS 40 985 28.3781 159.321 2 50 15 43
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-17 09:00:00 TS 29.0306 159.871 main 1927 1922 PPPP______P___ WP161981 28.8000 159.750 XX 52 -5 29.0877 160.022 3 45 982 0 9 125 125 29.2353 159.786 3 48 981 29.1871 159.974 TS 40 985 28.8431 159.820 2 50 13 41
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-17 12:00:00 TS 29.5000 160.340 50 980 tokyo main 1937 1937 OOOO______O___ jtwc_wp WP161981 29.3000 160.300 50 -1 29.6000 160.600 4 50 980 0 9 150 150 0 29.7000 160.100 3 48 980 29.6000 160.400 TS 40 985 29.3000 160.300 2 50 13 41
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-17 15:00:00 TS 29.9883 160.826 main 1957 1957 PPPP______P___ WP161981 29.7573 160.816 47 -1 30.0220 161.031 4 50 980 0 9 175 175 30.3378 160.684 3 48 980 30.0648 160.843 TS 40 985 29.7594 160.756 2 48 13 41
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-17 18:00:00 TS 30.4425 161.300 50 980 tokyo main 1968 1946 OOOO______P___ jtwc_wp WP161981 30.2000 161.300 45 -1 30.4000 161.400 4 50 980 0 9 200 200 0 30.9000 161.300 3 48 980 30.5000 161.300 TS 40 985 30.2123 161.202 2 47 12 43
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-17 21:00:00 TS 30.8335 161.753 main 1951 1931 PPPP______P___ WP161981 30.6568 161.721 45 -1 30.7997 161.786 4 50 980 0 9 200 200 31.1944 161.802 3 48 980 30.8573 161.786 TS 40 985 30.6591 161.672 2 46 11 47
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-18 00:00:00 TS 31.2000 162.240 50 980 tokyo main 1931 1922 OOOO______O___ jtwc_wp WP161981 31.1000 162.200 45 -1 31.2000 162.200 4 50 980 0 9 200 200 0 31.4000 162.300 3 48 980 31.2000 162.300 TS 40 985 31.1000 162.200 2 45 12 51
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-18 03:00:00 TS 31.5800 162.831 main 1922 1919 PPPP______P___ WP161981 31.5002 162.863 45 -1 31.6000 162.685 4 47 982 0 9 200 200 31.6772 162.871 3 48 981 31.5924 162.843 TS 40 985 31.5303 162.891 2 45 13 54
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-18 06:00:00 TS 31.9707 163.467 45 985 tokyo main 1921 1915 OOOO______P___ jtwc_wp WP161981 31.9000 163.600 45 -1 32.0000 163.200 3 45 985 0 9 200 200 0 32.0000 163.500 3 48 983 32.0000 163.400 TS 40 985 31.9533 163.636 2 45 14 54
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-18 09:00:00 TS 32.3819 164.121 main 1916 1910 PPPP______P___ WP161981 32.3426 164.330 45 -1 32.3999 163.708 3 45 985 0 9 200 200 32.3931 164.244 3 43 984 32.3999 163.958 TS 40 985 32.3742 164.363 2 45 13 52
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-18 12:00:00 TS 32.8000 164.720 45 985 tokyo main 1912 1898 OOOO______O___ jtwc_wp WP161981 32.8000 165.000 45 -1 32.8000 164.200 3 45 985 0 9 200 200 0 32.8000 164.900 2 38 985 32.8000 164.500 TS 40 985 32.8000 165.000 2 45 12 48
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-18 15:00:00 TS 33.2011 165.196 main 1903 1885 PPPP______P___ WP161981 33.2498 165.575 45 -1 33.1923 164.658 3 42 987 0 9 200 200 33.1342 165.247 2 38 985 33.1922 165.008 TS 40 985 33.2371 165.493 2 45 11 41
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-18 18:00:00 TS 33.6134 165.578 40 990 tokyo main 1891 1874 OOOO______P___ jtwc_wp WP161981 33.7000 166.000 45 -1 33.6000 165.100 3 40 990 0 9 200 200 0 33.5000 165.500 2 38 985 33.6000 165.500 TS 40 985 33.6851 165.863 2 45 10 37
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-18 21:00:00 TS 34.0328 165.961 main 1880 1856 PPPP______P___ WP161981 34.1421 166.239 45 -1 33.9976 165.580 3 40 991 0 9 200 200 33.9401 165.893 2 38 987 33.9977 166.038 TS 40 985 34.1407 166.151 2 45 11 33
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-19 00:00:00 TS 34.5250 166.300 40 992 tokyo main 1856 1817 OOOO______O___ jtwc_wp WP161981 34.6000 166.400 45 -1 34.5000 166.000 3 40 992 0 9 200 200 0 34.5000 166.300 2 38 990 34.5000 166.500 TS 40 985 34.6000 166.400 2 45 13 26
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-19 03:00:00 TS 35.1971 166.635 main 1817 1774 PPPP__________ WP161981 35.0903 166.624 42 -1 35.2049 166.317 3 40 992 0 9 200 200 35.2351 166.767 2 38 990 35.2048 166.825 TS 37 987 2 15 17
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-19 06:00:00 TS 35.9692 166.838 40 992 tokyo main 1766 1712 OOOO__________ jtwc_wp WP161981 35.6000 166.900 40 -1 36.0000 166.500 3 40 992 0 9 200 200 0 36.0000 167.000 2 38 990 36.0000 167.000 TS 35 990 2 15 4
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-19 09:00:00 TS 36.7126 166.757 main 1712 1640 _PPP__________ WP161981 -1 36.7499 166.539 3 40 992 0 9 200 200 36.6157 166.656 2 38 991 36.7723 167.075 TS 35 990 2 14 350
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-19 12:00:00 TS 37.3909 166.527 40 992 tokyo main 1640 1593 _OOO__________ -1 37.5000 166.500 3 40 992 0 9 200 200 0 37.2000 166.200 2 38 992 37.5000 167.000 TS 35 990 14 350
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-19 15:00:00 TS 38.0719 166.448 main 1579 1520 _PPP__________ -1 38.2874 166.537 3 40 992 0 9 200 200 37.8271 166.189 2 38 992 38.1303 166.788 TS 35 990 14 355
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-19 18:00:00 TS 38.7444 166.367 40 992 tokyo main 1520 1440 _OOO__________ -1 39.0000 166.500 3 40 992 0 9 200 200 0 38.5000 166.200 2 38 992 38.7000 166.500 TS 35 990 13 347
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-19 21:00:00 TS 39.3865 166.070 main 1440 1369 _PP___________ -1 39.5002 166.251 3 994 0 9 39.2728 165.889 2 38 993 TS 13 339
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-20 00:00:00 TS 40.0000 165.750 996 tokyo main 1369 1304 _OO___________ -1 40.0000 166.000 2 996 0 0 0 40.0000 165.500 2 38 994 13 342
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-20 03:00:00 TS 40.5874 165.561 main 1304 1243 _PP___________ -1 40.7124 165.962 2 996 0 0 40.4625 165.161 2 38 994 13 351
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-20 06:00:00 MX 41.2500 165.500 996 tokyo main 1234 1174 _OO___________ -1 41.5000 166.000 6 996 0 0 0 41.0000 165.000 2 38 994 14 0
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-20 09:00:00 MX 42.0314 165.587 main 1174 1100 _PP___________ -1 42.2125 166.000 6 995 0 0 41.8503 165.174 2 38 994 18 6
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-20 12:00:00 ET 43.0000 165.750 994 tokyo main 1096 1009 _OO___________ -1 43.0000 166.000 6 994 0 0 0 43.0000 165.500 9 38 994 22 7
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-20 15:00:00 ET 44.2311 165.963 main 1009 908 _PP___________ -1 43.9622 166.071 6 994 0 0 44.4999 165.855 9 33 994 25 4
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-20 18:00:00 ET 45.5000 166.000 994 tokyo main 899 794 _OO___________ -1 45.0000 166.000 6 994 0 0 0 46.0000 166.000 9 29 994 23 353
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-20 21:00:00 ET 46.5382 165.544 main 789 690 _PP___________ -1 46.0004 165.577 6 994 0 0 47.0761 165.511 9 29 994 21 341
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-21 00:00:00 ET 47.5000 165.000 994 tokyo main 682 605 _OO___________ -1 47.0000 165.000 6 994 0 0 0 48.0000 165.000 9 29 994 20 344
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-21 03:00:00 ET 48.4814 164.745 main 592 519 _PP___________ -1 47.9628 164.357 6 994 0 0 48.9999 165.132 9 29 994 20 355
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-21 06:00:00 ET 49.5000 164.750 994 tokyo main 514 434 _OO___________ -1 49.0000 164.000 6 994 0 0 0 50.0000 165.500 9 29 994 21 4
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-21 09:00:00 ET 50.6241 164.976 main 434 394 _PP___________ -1 50.2116 164.273 6 994 0 0 51.0366 165.680 9 29 994 23 12
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-21 12:00:00 ET 51.7500 165.500 994 tokyo main 391 348 _OO___________ -1 51.5000 165.000 6 994 0 0 0 52.0000 166.000 9 29 994 23 21
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-21 15:00:00 ET 52.7882 166.298 main 346 336 _PP___________ -1 52.7882 165.922 6 991 0 0 52.7881 166.675 9 29 992 23 27
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-21 18:00:00 ET 53.7857 167.214 988 tokyo main 344 332 _OO___________ -1 54.0000 167.000 6 988 0 0 0 53.5000 167.500 9 29 990 23 28
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-21 21:00:00 ET 54.8212 168.139 main 332 330 _PP___________ -1 55.1129 168.073 6 988 0 0 54.2377 168.271 9 29 989 23 27
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-22 00:00:00 ET 55.8000 169.000 988 tokyo main 348 347 _OO___________ -1 56.0000 169.000 6 988 0 0 0 55.0000 169.000 9 29 988 19 25
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-22 03:00:00 ET 56.5734 169.584 main 367 321 _P____________ -1 56.5734 169.584 6 988 0 0 9 13 25
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-22 06:00:00 ET 57.0000 170.000 988 tokyo main 321 265 _O____________ -1 57.0000 170.000 6 988 0 0 0 11 26
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-22 09:00:00 ET 57.5748 170.498 main 254 213 _P____________ -1 57.5748 170.498 6 988 0 0 11 28
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-22 12:00:00 ET 58.0000 171.000 988 tokyo main 214 204 _O____________ -1 58.0000 171.000 6 988 0 0 0 7 45
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-22 15:00:00 ET 58.0736 171.428 main 208 208 _P____________ -1 58.0736 171.428 6 988 0 0 5 90
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-22 18:00:00 ET 58.0000 172.000 988 tokyo main 231 231 _O____________ -1 58.0000 172.000 6 988 0 0 0 8 96
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-22 21:00:00 ET 57.9985 172.850 main 257 257 _P____________ -1 57.9985 172.850 6 988 0 0 11 90
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-23 00:00:00 ET 58.0000 174.000 988 tokyo main 297 297 _O____________ -1 58.0000 174.000 6 988 0 0 0 14 90
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-23 03:00:00 ET 58.0006 175.425 main 358 358 _P____________ -1 58.0006 175.425 6 988 0 0 16 90
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-23 06:00:00 ET 58.0000 177.000 988 tokyo main 414 414 _O____________ -1 58.0000 177.000 6 988 0 0 0 16 90
1981226N17142 1981 66 WP MM VANESSA 1981-08-23 09:00:00 ET 58.0022 178.525 main 472 472 _P____________ -1 58.0022 178.525 6 988 0 0 16 90
1981226N17142 1981 66 EP CP VANESSA 1981-08-23 12:00:00 ET 58.0000 180.000 988 tokyo main 477 _O____________ -1 58.0000 180.000 6 988 0 0 0 16 90

Digital Typhoon Data and Search

About IBTrACS Database

This database is a web-friendly format of International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS), a global best track data archive curated by NOAA dating back to 1842.

Updated: 2021-12-01