Map

Track Data

SID SEASON NUMBER BASIN SUBBASIN NAME ISO_TIME NATURE LAT LON WMO_WIND WMO_PRES WMO_AGENCY TRACK_TYPE DIST2LAND LANDFALL IFLAG USA_AGENCY USA_ATCF_ID USA_LAT USA_LON USA_RECORD USA_STATUS USA_WIND USA_PRES USA_SSHS USA_R34_NE USA_R34_SE USA_R34_SW USA_R34_NW USA_R50_NE USA_R50_SE USA_R50_SW USA_R50_NW USA_R64_NE USA_R64_SE USA_R64_SW USA_R64_NW USA_POCI USA_ROCI USA_RMW USA_EYE TOKYO_LAT TOKYO_LON TOKYO_GRADE TOKYO_WIND TOKYO_PRES TOKYO_R50_DIR TOKYO_R50_LONG TOKYO_R50_SHORT TOKYO_R30_DIR TOKYO_R30_LONG TOKYO_R30_SHORT TOKYO_LAND CMA_LAT CMA_LON CMA_CAT CMA_WIND CMA_PRES HKO_LAT HKO_LON HKO_CAT HKO_WIND HKO_PRES NEWDELHI_LAT NEWDELHI_LON NEWDELHI_GRADE NEWDELHI_WIND NEWDELHI_PRES NEWDELHI_CI NEWDELHI_DP NEWDELHI_POCI REUNION_LAT REUNION_LON REUNION_TYPE REUNION_WIND REUNION_PRES REUNION_TNUM REUNION_CI REUNION_RMW REUNION_R34_NE REUNION_R34_SE REUNION_R34_SW REUNION_R34_NW REUNION_R50_NE REUNION_R50_SE REUNION_R50_SW REUNION_R50_NW REUNION_R64_NE REUNION_R64_SE REUNION_R64_SW REUNION_R64_NW BOM_LAT BOM_LON BOM_TYPE BOM_WIND BOM_PRES BOM_TNUM BOM_CI BOM_RMW BOM_R34_NE BOM_R34_SE BOM_R34_SW BOM_R34_NW BOM_R50_NE BOM_R50_SE BOM_R50_SW BOM_R50_NW BOM_R64_NE BOM_R64_SE BOM_R64_SW BOM_R64_NW BOM_ROCI BOM_POCI BOM_EYE BOM_POS_METHOD BOM_PRES_METHOD NADI_LAT NADI_LON NADI_CAT NADI_WIND NADI_PRES WELLINGTON_LAT WELLINGTON_LON WELLINGTON_WIND WELLINGTON_PRES DS824_LAT DS824_LON DS824_STAGE DS824_WIND DS824_PRES TD9636_LAT TD9636_LON TD9636_STAGE TD9636_WIND TD9636_PRES TD9635_LAT TD9635_LON TD9635_WIND TD9635_PRES TD9635_ROCI NEUMANN_LAT NEUMANN_LON NEUMANN_CLASS NEUMANN_WIND NEUMANN_PRES MLC_LAT MLC_LON MLC_CLASS MLC_WIND MLC_PRES USA_GUST BOM_GUST BOM_GUST_PER REUNION_GUST REUNION_GUST_PER USA_SEAHGT USA_SEARAD_NE USA_SEARAD_SE USA_SEARAD_SW USA_SEARAD_NW STORM_SPEED STORM_DIR
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-07 12:00:00 TS 12.2000 -95.3000 25 1009 hurdat_epa main 403 355 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 12.2000 -95.3000 TD 25 1009 -1 10 332
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-07 15:00:00 TS 12.6501 -95.5448 main 344 303 P_____________ EP151991 12.6501 -95.5448 TD 25 1009 -1 9 329
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-07 18:00:00 TS 13.0000 -95.8000 25 1009 hurdat_epa main 303 274 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 13.0000 -95.8000 TD 25 1009 -1 8 316
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-07 21:00:00 TS 13.1874 -96.0777 main 274 258 P_____________ EP151991 13.1874 -96.0777 TD 25 1009 -1 7 297
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-08 00:00:00 TS 13.3000 -96.4000 25 1009 hurdat_epa main 258 246 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 13.3000 -96.4000 TD 25 1009 -1 7 291
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-08 03:00:00 TS 13.4500 -96.7775 main 247 230 P_____________ EP151991 13.4500 -96.7775 TD 25 1008 -1 8 291
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-08 06:00:00 TS 13.6000 -97.2000 25 1008 hurdat_epa main 233 229 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 13.6000 -97.2000 TD 25 1008 -1 9 289
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-08 09:00:00 TS 13.7424 -97.6351 main 238 233 P_____________ EP151991 13.7424 -97.6351 TD 27 1008 -1 9 289
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-08 12:00:00 TS 13.9000 -98.1000 30 1008 hurdat_epa main 237 225 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 13.9000 -98.1000 TD 30 1008 -1 10 290
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-08 15:00:00 TS 14.0850 -98.6001 main 229 227 P_____________ EP151991 14.0850 -98.6001 TD 32 1007 -1 11 292
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-08 18:00:00 TS 14.3000 -99.1000 35 1006 hurdat_epa main 230 218 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 14.3000 -99.1000 TS 35 1006 0 10 297
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-08 21:00:00 TS 14.5574 -99.5575 main 218 213 P_____________ EP151991 14.5574 -99.5575 TS 37 1005 0 10 300
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-09 00:00:00 TS 14.8000 -100.000 40 1005 hurdat_epa main 215 204 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 14.8000 -100.000 TS 40 1005 0 10 295
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-09 03:00:00 TS 14.9649 -100.443 main 204 204 P_____________ EP151991 14.9649 -100.443 TS 42 1003 0 9 289
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-09 06:00:00 TS 15.1000 -100.900 45 1002 hurdat_epa main 220 220 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 15.1000 -100.900 TS 45 1002 0 10 287
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-09 09:00:00 TS 15.2499 -101.393 main 232 222 P_____________ EP151991 15.2499 -101.393 TS 47 1001 0 10 287
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-09 12:00:00 TS 15.4000 -101.900 50 1000 hurdat_epa main 229 227 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 15.4000 -101.900 TS 50 1000 0 10 287
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-09 15:00:00 TS 15.5499 -102.408 main 244 235 P_____________ EP151991 15.5499 -102.408 TS 55 997 0 10 287
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-09 18:00:00 TS 15.7000 -102.900 60 995 hurdat_epa main 254 249 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 15.7000 -102.900 TS 60 995 0 10 288
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-09 21:00:00 TS 15.8499 -103.365 main 260 249 P_____________ EP151991 15.8499 -103.365 TS 62 992 0 9 289
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-10 00:00:00 TS 16.0000 -103.800 65 990 hurdat_epa main 253 246 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 16.0000 -103.800 HU 65 990 1 9 291
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-10 03:00:00 TS 16.1573 -104.200 main 246 246 P_____________ EP151991 16.1573 -104.200 HU 65 988 1 8 291
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-10 06:00:00 TS 16.3000 -104.600 65 987 hurdat_epa main 252 252 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 16.3000 -104.600 HU 65 987 1 8 287
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-10 09:00:00 TS 16.3999 -105.043 main 265 265 P_____________ EP151991 16.3999 -105.043 HU 65 987 1 9 283
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-10 12:00:00 TS 16.5000 -105.500 65 987 hurdat_epa main 292 292 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 16.5000 -105.500 HU 65 987 1 9 286
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-10 15:00:00 TS 16.6500 -105.957 main 317 307 P_____________ EP151991 16.6500 -105.957 HU 65 987 1 9 289
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-10 18:00:00 TS 16.8000 -106.400 65 987 hurdat_epa main 317 317 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 16.8000 -106.400 HU 65 987 1 9 288
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-10 21:00:00 TS 16.9149 -106.815 main 333 333 P_____________ EP151991 16.9149 -106.815 HU 65 987 1 8 285
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-11 00:00:00 TS 17.0000 -107.200 65 987 hurdat_epa main 353 353 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.0000 -107.200 HU 65 987 1 7 281
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-11 03:00:00 TS 17.0500 -107.573 main 384 376 P_____________ EP151991 17.0500 -107.573 HU 65 987 1 7 279
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-11 06:00:00 TS 17.1000 -107.900 65 987 hurdat_epa main 399 399 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.1000 -107.900 HU 65 987 1 6 284
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-11 09:00:00 TS 17.2000 -108.187 main 414 414 P_____________ EP151991 17.2000 -108.187 HU 67 984 1 5 293
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-11 12:00:00 TS 17.3000 -108.400 70 982 hurdat_epa main 423 423 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.3000 -108.400 HU 70 982 1 4 295
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-11 15:00:00 TS 17.3499 -108.523 main 431 424 P_____________ EP151991 17.3499 -108.523 HU 70 980 1 2 298
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-11 18:00:00 TS 17.4000 -108.600 70 979 hurdat_epa main 432 432 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.4000 -108.600 HU 70 979 1 2 308
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-11 21:00:00 TS 17.4925 -108.715 main 434 434 P_____________ EP151991 17.4925 -108.715 HU 70 979 1 3 316
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-12 00:00:00 TS 17.6000 -108.800 70 980 hurdat_epa main 437 431 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.6000 -108.800 HU 70 980 1 2 334
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-12 03:00:00 TS 17.7000 -108.815 main 431 425 P_____________ EP151991 17.7000 -108.815 HU 67 981 1 2 8
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-12 06:00:00 TS 17.8000 -108.800 65 982 hurdat_epa main 425 419 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.8000 -108.800 HU 65 982 1 2 7
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-12 09:00:00 TS 17.8925 -108.793 main 419 412 P_____________ EP151991 17.8925 -108.793 HU 62 983 0 2 8
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-12 12:00:00 TS 18.0000 -108.800 60 985 hurdat_epa main 412 406 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 18.0000 -108.800 TS 60 985 0 2 349
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-12 15:00:00 TS 18.1350 -108.835 main 406 400 P_____________ EP151991 18.1350 -108.835 TS 57 987 0 3 343
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-12 18:00:00 TS 18.3000 -108.900 55 990 hurdat_epa main 404 399 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 18.3000 -108.900 TS 55 990 0 4 337
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-12 21:00:00 TS 18.5000 -109.000 main 403 399 P_____________ EP151991 18.5000 -109.000 TS 52 992 0 4 335
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-13 00:00:00 TS 18.7000 -109.100 50 994 hurdat_epa main 403 398 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 18.7000 -109.100 TS 50 994 0 4 336
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-13 03:00:00 TS 18.8575 -109.165 main 403 398 P_____________ EP151991 18.8575 -109.165 TS 50 997 0 3 343
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-13 06:00:00 TS 19.0000 -109.200 50 1000 hurdat_epa main 398 389 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 19.0000 -109.200 TS 50 1000 0 3 354
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-13 09:00:00 TS 19.1650 -109.215 main 389 386 P_____________ EP151991 19.1650 -109.215 TS 47 1000 0 3 0
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-13 12:00:00 TS 19.3000 -109.200 45 1000 hurdat_epa main 386 372 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 19.3000 -109.200 TS 45 1000 0 2 23
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-13 15:00:00 TS 19.3650 -109.135 main 372 372 P_____________ EP151991 19.3650 -109.135 TS 45 1000 0 1 43
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-13 18:00:00 TS 19.4000 -109.100 45 1000 hurdat_epa main 372 369 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 19.4000 -109.100 TS 45 1000 0 1 0
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-13 21:00:00 TS 19.4725 -109.162 main 379 379 P_____________ EP151991 19.4725 -109.162 TS 42 1000 0 2 298
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-14 00:00:00 TS 19.5000 -109.300 40 1000 hurdat_epa main 383 382 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 19.5000 -109.300 TS 40 1000 0 3 261
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-14 03:00:00 TS 19.4299 -109.462 main 392 391 P_____________ EP151991 19.4299 -109.462 TS 37 1000 0 4 242
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-14 06:00:00 TS 19.3000 -109.700 35 1000 hurdat_epa main 402 402 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 19.3000 -109.700 TS 35 1000 0 6 244
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-14 09:00:00 TS 19.1725 -110.027 main 413 413 P_____________ EP151991 19.1725 -110.027 TS 35 1001 0 7 246
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-14 12:00:00 TS 19.0000 -110.400 35 1003 hurdat_epa main 438 438 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 19.0000 -110.400 TS 35 1003 0 8 239
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-14 15:00:00 TS 18.7649 -110.750 main 464 465 P_____________ EP151991 18.7649 -110.750 TS 35 1004 0 8 233
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-14 18:00:00 TS 18.5000 -111.100 35 1005 hurdat_epa main 505 505 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 18.5000 -111.100 TS 35 1005 0 8 232
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-14 21:00:00 TS 18.2424 -111.450 main 545 545 P_____________ EP151991 18.2424 -111.450 TS 32 1006 -1 8 233
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-15 00:00:00 TS 18.0000 -111.800 30 1007 hurdat_epa main 579 579 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 18.0000 -111.800 TD 30 1007 -1 8 235
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-15 03:00:00 TS 17.7849 -112.135 main 610 610 P_____________ EP151991 17.7849 -112.135 TD 30 1007 -1 8 239
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-15 06:00:00 TS 17.6000 -112.500 30 1008 hurdat_epa main 647 647 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.6000 -112.500 TD 30 1008 -1 8 245
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-15 09:00:00 TS 17.4349 -112.927 main 685 685 P_____________ EP151991 17.4349 -112.927 TD 30 1008 -1 9 251
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-15 12:00:00 TS 17.3000 -113.400 30 1008 hurdat_epa main 719 719 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.3000 -113.400 TD 30 1008 -1 10 255
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-15 15:00:00 TS 17.1849 -113.892 main 756 756 P_____________ EP151991 17.1849 -113.892 TD 30 1008 -1 10 258
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-15 18:00:00 TS 17.1000 -114.400 30 1009 hurdat_epa main 794 794 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.1000 -114.400 TD 30 1009 -1 10 262
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-15 21:00:00 TS 17.0424 -114.907 main 835 835 P_____________ EP151991 17.0424 -114.907 TD 30 1009 -1 10 264
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-16 00:00:00 TS 17.0000 -115.400 30 1009 hurdat_epa main 868 868 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.0000 -115.400 TD 30 1009 -1 9 264
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-16 03:00:00 TS 16.9422 -115.843 main 904 904 P_____________ EP151991 16.9422 -115.843 TD 30 1009 -1 9 263
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-16 06:00:00 TS 16.9000 -116.300 30 1009 hurdat_epa main 939 939 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 16.9000 -116.300 TD 30 1009 -1 9 266
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-16 09:00:00 TS 16.8773 -116.813 main 977 977 P_____________ EP151991 16.8773 -116.813 TD 30 1009 -1 11 270
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-16 12:00:00 TS 16.9000 -117.400 30 1009 hurdat_epa main 1023 1023 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 16.9000 -117.400 TD 30 1009 -1 12 275
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-16 15:00:00 TS 16.9851 -118.092 main 1062 1062 P_____________ EP151991 16.9851 -118.092 TD 30 1009 -1 14 278
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-16 18:00:00 TS 17.1000 -118.800 30 1009 hurdat_epa main 1097 1097 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.1000 -118.800 TD 30 1009 -1 13 279
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-16 21:00:00 TS 17.1847 -119.415 main 1129 1129 P_____________ EP151991 17.1847 -119.415 TD 27 1009 -1 12 280
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-17 00:00:00 TS 17.3000 -120.000 25 1009 hurdat_epa main 1164 1164 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.3000 -120.000 TD 25 1009 -1 12 284
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-17 03:00:00 TS 17.4774 -120.608 main 1192 1192 P_____________ EP151991 17.4774 -120.608 TD 25 1009 -1 12 289
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-17 06:00:00 TS 17.7000 -121.200 25 1009 hurdat_epa main 1223 1223 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 17.7000 -121.200 TD 25 1009 -1 12 293
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-17 09:00:00 TS 17.9425 -121.780 main 1257 1250 P_____________ EP151991 17.9425 -121.780 TD 25 1009 -1 12 296
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-17 12:00:00 TS 18.2000 -122.300 25 1009 hurdat_epa main 1278 1278 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 18.2000 -122.300 TD 25 1009 -1 10 299
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-17 15:00:00 TS 18.4347 -122.708 main 1299 1294 P_____________ EP151991 18.4347 -122.708 TD 25 1009 -1 9 303
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-17 18:00:00 TS 18.7000 -123.100 25 1009 hurdat_epa main 1301 1297 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 18.7000 -123.100 TD 25 1009 -1 10 306
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-17 21:00:00 TS 19.0501 -123.600 main 1300 1298 P_____________ EP151991 19.0501 -123.600 TD 25 1009 -1 12 307
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-18 00:00:00 TS 19.4000 -124.100 25 1009 hurdat_epa main 1310 1309 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 19.4000 -124.100 TD 25 1009 -1 10 305
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-18 03:00:00 TS 19.6347 -124.501 main 1323 1315 P_____________ EP151991 19.6347 -124.501 TD 25 1009 -1 9 304
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-18 06:00:00 TS 19.9000 -124.900 25 1009 hurdat_epa main 1330 1330 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 19.9000 -124.900 TD 25 1009 -1 11 309
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-18 09:00:00 TS 20.3015 -125.383 main 1340 1332 P_____________ EP151991 20.2976 -125.393 TD 25 1009 -1 13 314
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-18 12:00:00 TS 20.8000 -125.900 25 1009 hurdat_epa main 1345 1340 O_____________ hurdat_epa EP151991 20.8000 -125.900 TD 25 1009 -1 14 320
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-18 15:00:00 NR 21.3801 -126.364 main 1349 1342 P_____________ EP151991 21.3801 -126.364 TD 25 -1 15 325
1991281N12265 1991 76 EP MM MARTY 1991-10-18 18:00:00 NR 22.0000 -126.800 main 1348 O_____________ jtwc_ep EP151991 22.0000 -126.800 25 15 327

About IBTrACS Database

This database is a web-friendly format of International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS), a global best track data archive curated by NOAA dating back to 1842.

Updated: 2021-10-19