Station Number 88971
Prefecture Kagoshima [ Local Portal ]
Location 鹿児島県大島郡和泊町国頭字手付 沖永良部特別地域気象観測所 (OSHIMA GUN WADOMARI CHO, KAGOSHIMA KEN)
Months of Observations 525
Number of Observations 383,486
Period of Observations
Period Name Lat. Long. Height Anemometer
1975/04/10 -- 1985/12/31 OKINOERABU 27.430N 128.703E 27m 13.5m
1986/01/01 -- 2000/01/11 OKINOERABU 27.430N 128.703E 27m 13.5m
2000/01/12 -- 2005/05/11 OKINOERABU 27.430N 128.703E 28m 13.4m
2005/05/12 -- 2008/09/30 OKINOERABU 27.432N 128.705E 27m 13.4m
2008/10/01 -- 2019/09/99 OKINOERABU 27.432N 128.705E 27m 10.0m
Real-time Data AMeRAS (AMeDAS Ranking Service)
Past Heavy Rain Data AMeDAS heavy rain
Weather Disaster Reports
Typhoon History
Neighbor Stations
Number Name Distance Azimuth

Statistics for the Whole Period

Precipitation

0.0mm - 0.4mm 0.0mm - 0.4mm = 358,163
[358,163 (93.40% / 93.47%)] [358,163 / 383,176 (93.47)]
0.5mm - 1.4mm 0.5mm - 1.4mm = 12,152
[12,152 (3.17% / 3.17%)] [370,315 / 25,013 (96.64)]
1.5mm - 2.4mm 1.5mm - 2.4mm = 4,039
[4,039 (1.05% / 1.05%)] [374,354 / 12,861 (97.70)]
2.5mm - 3.4mm 2.5mm - 3.4mm = 2,321
[2,321 (0.61% / 0.61%)] [376,675 / 8,822 (98.30)]
3.5mm - 4.4mm 3.5mm - 4.4mm = 1,481
[1,481 (0.39% / 0.39%)] [378,156 / 6,501 (98.69)]
4.5mm - 5.4mm 4.5mm - 5.4mm = 971
[971 (0.25% / 0.25%)] [379,127 / 5,020 (98.94)]
5.5mm - 6.4mm 5.5mm - 6.4mm = 747
[747 (0.19% / 0.19%)] [379,874 / 4,049 (99.14)]
6.5mm - 7.4mm 6.5mm - 7.4mm = 568
[568 (0.15% / 0.15%)] [380,442 / 3,302 (99.29)]
7.5mm - 8.4mm 7.5mm - 8.4mm = 444
[444 (0.12% / 0.12%)] [380,886 / 2,734 (99.40)]
8.5mm - 9.4mm 8.5mm - 9.4mm = 376
[376 (0.10% / 0.10%)] [381,262 / 2,290 (99.50)]
9.5mm - 10.4mm 9.5mm - 10.4mm = 277
[277 (0.07% / 0.07%)] [381,539 / 1,914 (99.57)]
10.5mm - 11.4mm 10.5mm - 11.4mm = 262
[262 (0.07% / 0.07%)] [381,801 / 1,637 (99.64)]
11.5mm - 12.4mm 11.5mm - 12.4mm = 199
[199 (0.05% / 0.05%)] [382,000 / 1,375 (99.69)]
12.5mm - 13.4mm 12.5mm - 13.4mm = 146
[146 (0.04% / 0.04%)] [382,146 / 1,176 (99.73)]
13.5mm - 14.4mm 13.5mm - 14.4mm = 133
[133 (0.03% / 0.03%)] [382,279 / 1,030 (99.77)]
14.5mm - 15.4mm 14.5mm - 15.4mm = 108
[108 (0.03% / 0.03%)] [382,387 / 897 (99.79)]
15.5mm - 16.4mm 15.5mm - 16.4mm = 96
[96 (0.03% / 0.03%)] [382,483 / 789 (99.82)]
16.5mm - 17.4mm 16.5mm - 17.4mm = 66
[66 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [382,549 / 693 (99.84)]
17.5mm - 18.4mm 17.5mm - 18.4mm = 70
[70 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [382,619 / 627 (99.85)]
18.5mm - 19.4mm 18.5mm - 19.4mm = 65
[65 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [382,684 / 557 (99.87)]
19.5mm - 20.4mm 19.5mm - 20.4mm = 57
[57 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [382,741 / 492 (99.89)]
20.5mm - 21.4mm 20.5mm - 21.4mm = 38
[38 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [382,779 / 435 (99.90)]
21.5mm - 22.4mm 21.5mm - 22.4mm = 40
[40 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [382,819 / 397 (99.91)]
22.5mm - 23.4mm 22.5mm - 23.4mm = 33
[33 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [382,852 / 357 (99.92)]
23.5mm - 24.4mm 23.5mm - 24.4mm = 44
[44 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [382,896 / 324 (99.93)]
24.5mm - 25.4mm 24.5mm - 25.4mm = 28
[28 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [382,924 / 280 (99.93)]
25.5mm - 26.4mm 25.5mm - 26.4mm = 23
[23 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [382,947 / 252 (99.94)]
26.5mm - 27.4mm 26.5mm - 27.4mm = 18
[18 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [382,965 / 229 (99.94)]
27.5mm - 28.4mm 27.5mm - 28.4mm = 25
[25 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [382,990 / 211 (99.95)]
28.5mm - 29.4mm 28.5mm - 29.4mm = 12
[12 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,002 / 186 (99.95)]
29.5mm - 30.4mm 29.5mm - 30.4mm = 14
[14 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,016 / 174 (99.96)]
30.5mm - 31.4mm 30.5mm - 31.4mm = 16
[16 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,032 / 160 (99.96)]
31.5mm - 32.4mm 31.5mm - 32.4mm = 11
[11 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,043 / 144 (99.97)]
32.5mm - 33.4mm 32.5mm - 33.4mm = 14
[14 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,057 / 133 (99.97)]
33.5mm - 34.4mm 33.5mm - 34.4mm = 13
[13 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,070 / 119 (99.97)]
34.5mm - 35.4mm 34.5mm - 35.4mm = 6
[6 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,076 / 106 (99.97)]
35.5mm - 36.4mm 35.5mm - 36.4mm = 9
[9 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,085 / 100 (99.98)]
36.5mm - 37.4mm 36.5mm - 37.4mm = 9
[9 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,094 / 91 (99.98)]
37.5mm - 38.4mm 37.5mm - 38.4mm = 11
[11 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,105 / 82 (99.98)]
38.5mm - 39.4mm 38.5mm - 39.4mm = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,107 / 71 (99.98)]
39.5mm - 40.4mm 39.5mm - 40.4mm = 6
[6 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,113 / 69 (99.98)]
40.5mm - 41.4mm 40.5mm - 41.4mm = 5
[5 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,118 / 63 (99.98)]
41.5mm - 42.4mm 41.5mm - 42.4mm = 4
[4 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,122 / 58 (99.99)]
42.5mm - 43.4mm 42.5mm - 43.4mm = 3
[3 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,125 / 54 (99.99)]
43.5mm - 44.4mm 43.5mm - 44.4mm = 4
[4 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,129 / 51 (99.99)]
44.5mm - 45.4mm 44.5mm - 45.4mm = 6
[6 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,135 / 47 (99.99)]
46.5mm - 47.4mm 46.5mm - 47.4mm = 4
[4 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,139 / 41 (99.99)]
47.5mm - 48.4mm 47.5mm - 48.4mm = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,141 / 37 (99.99)]
50.5mm - 51.4mm 50.5mm - 51.4mm = 8
[8 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,149 / 35 (99.99)]
52.5mm - 53.4mm 52.5mm - 53.4mm = 4
[4 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,153 / 27 (99.99)]
53.5mm - 54.4mm 53.5mm - 54.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,154 / 23 (99.99)]
54.5mm - 55.4mm 54.5mm - 55.4mm = 5
[5 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,159 / 22 (100.00)]
55.5mm - 56.4mm 55.5mm - 56.4mm = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,161 / 17 (100.00)]
56.5mm - 57.4mm 56.5mm - 57.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,162 / 15 (100.00)]
58.5mm - 59.4mm 58.5mm - 59.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,163 / 14 (100.00)]
59.5mm - 60.4mm 59.5mm - 60.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,164 / 13 (100.00)]
60.5mm - 61.4mm 60.5mm - 61.4mm = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,166 / 12 (100.00)]
65.5mm - 66.4mm 65.5mm - 66.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,167 / 10 (100.00)]
71.5mm - 72.4mm 71.5mm - 72.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,168 / 9 (100.00)]
73.5mm - 74.4mm 73.5mm - 74.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,169 / 8 (100.00)]
74.5mm - 75.4mm 74.5mm - 75.4mm = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,171 / 7 (100.00)]
75.5mm - 76.4mm 75.5mm - 76.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,172 / 5 (100.00)]
76.5mm - 77.4mm 76.5mm - 77.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,173 / 4 (100.00)]
79.5mm - 80.4mm 79.5mm - 80.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,174 / 3 (100.00)]
80.5mm - 81.4mm 80.5mm - 81.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,175 / 2 (100.00)]
84.5mm - 85.4mm 84.5mm - 85.4mm = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,176 / 1 (100.00)]

Missing observations (310 / 0.08%)

Wind Direction

Calm Calm = 2,906
[2,906 (0.76% / 0.76%)]
NNE NNE = 33,277
[33,277 (8.68% / 8.69%)]
NE NE = 26,599
[26,599 (6.94% / 6.94%)]
ENE ENE = 22,831
[22,831 (5.95% / 5.96%)]
E E = 29,754
[29,754 (7.76% / 7.77%)]
ESE ESE = 26,705
[26,705 (6.96% / 6.97%)]
SE SE = 25,547
[25,547 (6.66% / 6.67%)]
SSE SSE = 22,146
[22,146 (5.77% / 5.78%)]
S S = 24,536
[24,536 (6.40% / 6.40%)]
SSW SSW = 26,063
[26,063 (6.80% / 6.80%)]
SW SW = 13,964
[13,964 (3.64% / 3.64%)]
WSW WSW = 7,983
[7,983 (2.08% / 2.08%)]
W W = 8,034
[8,034 (2.09% / 2.10%)]
WNW WNW = 8,413
[8,413 (2.19% / 2.20%)]
NW NW = 18,839
[18,839 (4.91% / 4.92%)]
NNW NNW = 41,375
[41,375 (10.79% / 10.80%)]
N N = 44,163
[44,163 (11.52% / 11.53%)]

Missing observations (351 / 0.09%)

Wind Speed

0.0m/s - 0.4m/s 0.0m/s - 0.4m/s = 3,079
[3,079 (0.80% / 0.80%)] [3,079 / 383,158 (0.80)]
0.5m/s - 1.4m/s 0.5m/s - 1.4m/s = 11,473
[11,473 (2.99% / 2.99%)] [14,552 / 380,079 (3.80)]
1.5m/s - 2.4m/s 1.5m/s - 2.4m/s = 29,479
[29,479 (7.69% / 7.69%)] [44,031 / 368,606 (11.49)]
2.5m/s - 3.4m/s 2.5m/s - 3.4m/s = 44,864
[44,864 (11.70% / 11.71%)] [88,895 / 339,127 (23.20)]
3.5m/s - 4.4m/s 3.5m/s - 4.4m/s = 56,201
[56,201 (14.66% / 14.67%)] [145,096 / 294,263 (37.87)]
4.5m/s - 5.4m/s 4.5m/s - 5.4m/s = 58,313
[58,313 (15.21% / 15.22%)] [203,409 / 238,062 (53.09)]
5.5m/s - 6.4m/s 5.5m/s - 6.4m/s = 51,298
[51,298 (13.38% / 13.39%)] [254,707 / 179,749 (66.48)]
6.5m/s - 7.4m/s 6.5m/s - 7.4m/s = 41,239
[41,239 (10.75% / 10.76%)] [295,946 / 128,451 (77.24)]
7.5m/s - 8.4m/s 7.5m/s - 8.4m/s = 31,052
[31,052 (8.10% / 8.10%)] [326,998 / 87,212 (85.34)]
8.5m/s - 9.4m/s 8.5m/s - 9.4m/s = 22,147
[22,147 (5.78% / 5.78%)] [349,145 / 56,160 (91.12)]
9.5m/s - 10.4m/s 9.5m/s - 10.4m/s = 14,216
[14,216 (3.71% / 3.71%)] [363,361 / 34,013 (94.83)]
10.5m/s - 11.4m/s 10.5m/s - 11.4m/s = 8,573
[8,573 (2.24% / 2.24%)] [371,934 / 19,797 (97.07)]
11.5m/s - 12.4m/s 11.5m/s - 12.4m/s = 4,615
[4,615 (1.20% / 1.20%)] [376,549 / 11,224 (98.28)]
12.5m/s - 13.4m/s 12.5m/s - 13.4m/s = 2,415
[2,415 (0.63% / 0.63%)] [378,964 / 6,609 (98.91)]
13.5m/s - 14.4m/s 13.5m/s - 14.4m/s = 1,306
[1,306 (0.34% / 0.34%)] [380,270 / 4,194 (99.25)]
14.5m/s - 15.4m/s 14.5m/s - 15.4m/s = 769
[769 (0.20% / 0.20%)] [381,039 / 2,888 (99.45)]
15.5m/s - 16.4m/s 15.5m/s - 16.4m/s = 456
[456 (0.12% / 0.12%)] [381,495 / 2,119 (99.57)]
16.5m/s - 17.4m/s 16.5m/s - 17.4m/s = 361
[361 (0.09% / 0.09%)] [381,856 / 1,663 (99.66)]
17.5m/s - 18.4m/s 17.5m/s - 18.4m/s = 272
[272 (0.07% / 0.07%)] [382,128 / 1,302 (99.73)]
18.5m/s - 19.4m/s 18.5m/s - 19.4m/s = 202
[202 (0.05% / 0.05%)] [382,330 / 1,030 (99.78)]
19.5m/s - 20.4m/s 19.5m/s - 20.4m/s = 183
[183 (0.05% / 0.05%)] [382,513 / 828 (99.83)]
20.5m/s - 21.4m/s 20.5m/s - 21.4m/s = 141
[141 (0.04% / 0.04%)] [382,654 / 645 (99.87)]
21.5m/s - 22.4m/s 21.5m/s - 22.4m/s = 104
[104 (0.03% / 0.03%)] [382,758 / 504 (99.90)]
22.5m/s - 23.4m/s 22.5m/s - 23.4m/s = 81
[81 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [382,839 / 400 (99.92)]
23.5m/s - 24.4m/s 23.5m/s - 24.4m/s = 74
[74 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [382,913 / 319 (99.94)]
24.5m/s - 25.4m/s 24.5m/s - 25.4m/s = 50
[50 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [382,963 / 245 (99.95)]
25.5m/s - 26.4m/s 25.5m/s - 26.4m/s = 59
[59 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [383,022 / 195 (99.96)]
26.5m/s - 27.4m/s 26.5m/s - 27.4m/s = 35
[35 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [383,057 / 136 (99.97)]
27.5m/s - 28.4m/s 27.5m/s - 28.4m/s = 24
[24 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [383,081 / 101 (99.98)]
28.5m/s - 29.4m/s 28.5m/s - 29.4m/s = 28
[28 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [383,109 / 77 (99.99)]
29.5m/s - 30.4m/s 29.5m/s - 30.4m/s = 21
[21 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [383,130 / 49 (99.99)]
30.5m/s - 31.4m/s 30.5m/s - 31.4m/s = 7
[7 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,137 / 28 (99.99)]
31.5m/s - 32.4m/s 31.5m/s - 32.4m/s = 6
[6 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,143 / 21 (100.00)]
32.5m/s - 33.4m/s 32.5m/s - 33.4m/s = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,145 / 15 (100.00)]
33.5m/s - 34.4m/s 33.5m/s - 34.4m/s = 6
[6 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,151 / 13 (100.00)]
34.5m/s - 35.4m/s 34.5m/s - 35.4m/s = 3
[3 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,154 / 7 (100.00)]
35.5m/s - 36.4m/s 35.5m/s - 36.4m/s = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,155 / 4 (100.00)]
36.5m/s - 37.4m/s 36.5m/s - 37.4m/s = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,157 / 3 (100.00)]
39.5m/s - 40.4m/s 39.5m/s - 40.4m/s = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [383,158 / 1 (100.00)]

Missing observations (328 / 0.09%)

Temperature

5.5C - 6.4C 5.5C - 6.4C = 4
[4 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [4 / 370,899 (0.00)]
6.5C - 7.4C 6.5C - 7.4C = 22
[22 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [26 / 370,895 (0.01)]
7.5C - 8.4C 7.5C - 8.4C = 71
[71 (0.02% / 0.02%)] [97 / 370,873 (0.03)]
8.5C - 9.4C 8.5C - 9.4C = 205
[205 (0.05% / 0.06%)] [302 / 370,802 (0.08)]
9.5C - 10.4C 9.5C - 10.4C = 515
[515 (0.13% / 0.14%)] [817 / 370,597 (0.22)]
10.5C - 11.4C 10.5C - 11.4C = 1,517
[1,517 (0.40% / 0.41%)] [2,334 / 370,082 (0.63)]
11.5C - 12.4C 11.5C - 12.4C = 3,441
[3,441 (0.90% / 0.93%)] [5,775 / 368,565 (1.56)]
12.5C - 13.4C 12.5C - 13.4C = 6,772
[6,772 (1.77% / 1.83%)] [12,547 / 365,124 (3.38)]
13.5C - 14.4C 13.5C - 14.4C = 10,754
[10,754 (2.80% / 2.90%)] [23,301 / 358,352 (6.28)]
14.5C - 15.4C 14.5C - 15.4C = 13,431
[13,431 (3.50% / 3.62%)] [36,732 / 347,598 (9.90)]
15.5C - 16.4C 15.5C - 16.4C = 15,098
[15,098 (3.94% / 4.07%)] [51,830 / 334,167 (13.97)]
16.5C - 17.4C 16.5C - 17.4C = 17,269
[17,269 (4.50% / 4.66%)] [69,099 / 319,069 (18.63)]
17.5C - 18.4C 17.5C - 18.4C = 19,208
[19,208 (5.01% / 5.18%)] [88,307 / 301,800 (23.81)]
18.5C - 19.4C 18.5C - 19.4C = 21,168
[21,168 (5.52% / 5.71%)] [109,475 / 282,592 (29.52)]
19.5C - 20.4C 19.5C - 20.4C = 22,082
[22,082 (5.76% / 5.95%)] [131,557 / 261,424 (35.47)]
20.5C - 21.4C 20.5C - 21.4C = 23,586
[23,586 (6.15% / 6.36%)] [155,143 / 239,342 (41.83)]
21.5C - 22.4C 21.5C - 22.4C = 23,136
[23,136 (6.03% / 6.24%)] [178,279 / 215,756 (48.07)]
22.5C - 23.4C 22.5C - 23.4C = 23,003
[23,003 (6.00% / 6.20%)] [201,282 / 192,620 (54.27)]
23.5C - 24.4C 23.5C - 24.4C = 22,985
[22,985 (5.99% / 6.20%)] [224,267 / 169,617 (60.47)]
24.5C - 25.4C 24.5C - 25.4C = 22,612
[22,612 (5.90% / 6.10%)] [246,879 / 146,632 (66.56)]
25.5C - 26.4C 25.5C - 26.4C = 24,159
[24,159 (6.30% / 6.51%)] [271,038 / 124,020 (73.08)]
26.5C - 27.4C 26.5C - 27.4C = 28,004
[28,004 (7.30% / 7.55%)] [299,042 / 99,861 (80.63)]
27.5C - 28.4C 27.5C - 28.4C = 28,178
[28,178 (7.35% / 7.60%)] [327,220 / 71,857 (88.22)]
28.5C - 29.4C 28.5C - 29.4C = 18,908
[18,908 (4.93% / 5.10%)] [346,128 / 43,679 (93.32)]
29.5C - 30.4C 29.5C - 30.4C = 13,255
[13,255 (3.46% / 3.57%)] [359,383 / 24,771 (96.90)]
30.5C - 31.4C 30.5C - 31.4C = 8,283
[8,283 (2.16% / 2.23%)] [367,666 / 11,516 (99.13)]
31.5C - 32.4C 31.5C - 32.4C = 2,774
[2,774 (0.72% / 0.75%)] [370,440 / 3,233 (99.88)]
32.5C - 33.4C 32.5C - 33.4C = 420
[420 (0.11% / 0.11%)] [370,860 / 459 (99.99)]
33.5C - 34.4C 33.5C - 34.4C = 36
[36 (0.01% / 0.01%)] [370,896 / 39 (100.00)]
34.5C - 35.4C 34.5C - 35.4C = 2
[2 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [370,898 / 3 (100.00)]
35.5C - 36.4C 35.5C - 36.4C = 1
[1 (0.00% / 0.00%)] [370,899 / 1 (100.00)]

Missing observations (12,587 / 3.28%)

Sunshine Duration

0.0h 0.0h = 256,908
[256,908 (66.99% / 67.53%)] [256,908 / 380,443 (67.53)]
0.1h 0.1h = 10,893
[10,893 (2.84% / 2.86%)] [267,801 / 123,535 (70.39)]
0.2h 0.2h = 8,305
[8,305 (2.17% / 2.18%)] [276,106 / 112,642 (72.57)]
0.3h 0.3h = 7,364
[7,364 (1.92% / 1.94%)] [283,470 / 104,337 (74.51)]
0.4h 0.4h = 7,029
[7,029 (1.83% / 1.85%)] [290,499 / 96,973 (76.36)]
0.5h 0.5h = 6,971
[6,971 (1.82% / 1.83%)] [297,470 / 89,944 (78.19)]
0.6h 0.6h = 7,037
[7,037 (1.84% / 1.85%)] [304,507 / 82,973 (80.04)]
0.7h 0.7h = 7,784
[7,784 (2.03% / 2.05%)] [312,291 / 75,936 (82.09)]
0.8h 0.8h = 9,349
[9,349 (2.44% / 2.46%)] [321,640 / 68,152 (84.54)]
0.9h 0.9h = 12,943
[12,943 (3.38% / 3.40%)] [334,583 / 58,803 (87.95)]
1.0h 1.0h = 45,860
[45,860 (11.96% / 12.05%)] [380,443 / 45,860 (100.00)]

Missing observations (3,043 / 0.79%)